Migraine is commonly understood to be a severe headache and a neurovascular disorder that predominantly affects one side of the head, accompanied by nausea, severe pain, and sensitivity to light and sound. (1) However, ocular migraine is distinct from the migraine experienced by the majority of people, and the term is typically used to characterise these two conditions.
A migraine with aura is a condition in which the eye’s vision is impaired prior to the onset of the migraine headache. It typically affects both eyes. This form of migraine is characterised by both headache and visual impairments. These forms of migraines are typically caused by pain in the visual cortex, which manifests as aura in both eyes. The aura may last for an hour, after which a headache develops.
Ocular migraine is commonly referred to as “retinal migraine” Ocular migraine is an uncommon condition that impairs the vision in only one eye. This form of ocular migraine differs from classical migraine in that it is not accompanied by throbbing pain and a severe headache.
What exactly is an aura?
A visual aura is a gradually expanding blind area. These auras can be of various varieties.
Typically, an aura disappears within an hour, and vision returns to normal. As there are numerous potential causes for an aura, it is recommended to consult an eye specialist to determine the underlying cause. In the event that the patient is experiencing an Ocular Migraine, any complication may lead to permanent vision impairment.
Symptoms of Ocular Migraine:
There are numerous hypotheses regarding the mechanism of Ocular Migraine, and they are all highly controversial among physicians. During an ocular migraine, the cranial nerve V is activated and neuropeptides are released. These neuropeptides induce a painful neurogenic inflammation that results in vasodilation and blood flow disruption at the rear of the retina. According to a study, both the middle meningeal and middle cerebral arteries were found to be dilated. Some researchers believe that vasodilation is an epiphenomenon and not the causative agent behind ocular migraine, so this theory cannot be fully adopted. (2)
Ocular Migraine statistically:
Ocular migraine is a very uncommon condition, and its prevalence cannot be determined with certainty due to the paucity of statistical data and research on the subject. According to a survey, however, 20 to 25 percent of migraine sufferers experience visual impairment. The onset of ocular migraine typically occurs in the first decade of life and worsens when the patient reaches the age of 40, whereas only fifty percent of individuals with retinal migraine experience complete vision loss in one eye. According to research, 29% of individuals with ocular migraine had classical migraine before developing ocular migraine. As with all other migraines, this migraine is more common among women than males.