Migraine of the Eye: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment
Manifestations of Ocular Migraine
When afflicted with any type of ailment, it is essential to be aware of your symptoms. Not only do symptoms aid in making an accurate diagnosis, but they also indicate the severity of the condition. The patient with ocular migraine should monitor the frequency of migraine and vision loss. (3)
a painful headache
Ocular migraine may or may not be accompanied by discomfort. In most cases, ocular migraine is not painful; however, 3.2% of persons with ocular migraine also experience a headache. Ocular migraine makes it difficult for patients to see clearly due to the aura, which increases ocular pressure and leads to inflammation of the arteries. This inflammation causes headaches by exerting pressure on the adjacent tissues and muscles. People also experience migraines following the disappearance of the aura.
Extreme mood fluctuations are a common symptom of ocular migraine. Numerous days prior to the onset of an ocular migraine, people with ocular migraine experience abrupt and frequent emotional shifts. When this occurs before a migraine, it is called prodromal, and when it occurs after an ocular migraine, it is called postdrome. People with ocular migraine are more likely to experience frequent tension or depression, leading to mood swings and alterations in behaviour.
yawning and vertigo
People with ocular migraine also report increased respiration prior to the onset of the condition. Since gaping is an early sign of ocular migraine, the patient can make future preparations to treat the condition once it begins. Although the exact relationship between yawning and ocular migraine is still unknown, research has shown that persons with ocular migraine yawn more frequently. People with ocular migraines also experience fatigue and vertigo during migraines, which may be caused by vision problems.
Nausea and Nausea
Nausea and regurgitation are the most common ocular migraine symptoms. Nearly 70% of migraine sufferers experience regurgitation, while 90% suffer from nausea. Possible explanations include fluctuations in serotonin levels. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter present in the trigeminal and gastrointestinal nerves. Any change can trigger an ocular migraine with vertigo and vomiting.
Vision loss, whether partial or total, is a prominent symptom of ocular migraine. Although this vision loss is only temporary, it can be extremely disturbing. Lack of blood supply and vasoconstriction prevent blood from reaching the retina. This lack of oxygen disrupts the retina’s function, leading to vision loss. 50% of individuals with ocular migraine experience complete vision loss in one eye, while 20% of individuals experience impaired vision.
Aphasia is the inability to communicate clearly. Ocular migraine disrupts the body’s motor function. The right hemisphere of the brain is in charge of language and cognition. Ocular migraine sufferers experience a mild dysfunction of the right hemisphere, resulting in confusion and slurred speech.
Photophobia or light sensitivity is another of the most common migraine symptoms. Photophobia is the sensitivity of the eyes to fluorescent and bright lighting. During photophobia, the cells in the eyes become hypersensitive to light and begin to send random signals to the brain. Photophobia is not only a symptom of ocular migraine, but in many cases it can also trigger an attack. Those who suffer from ocular migraine are more likely to develop photophobia.
A fear of sounds
Another symptom of ocular migraine is phonophobia. Also referred to as aural sensitivity. During phono-phobia, the individual develops a sensitivity to deafening noises. 81% of individuals with ocular migraine also suffer from phono-phobia. The increased pressure exerted on the ear by inflammation in veins and arteries around the temples and eyes can make ear cells more sensitive, thereby making a person more sensitive to sound.
Symptom of vertigo
People with migraine frequently experience disequilibrium. Vertigo is a condition in which the patient perceives the environment to be moving or rotating, making it difficult to maintain balance. The inner ear is responsible for relaying equilibrium information to the brain. Inflammation or vasospasm in the inner vestibular artery frequently disrupts the signals that reach the brain, causing vertigo.
A feeling of numbness
Migraine sufferers also report experiencing a numbing sensation. The impairment to the nervous system is the cause of numbness. Typically, migraine sufferers with aura experience paralysis in their hands. Due to increased pressure in the peripheral nervous system, the sensory system can become compromised, preventing the transmission of signals from the body to the brain and causing numbness.
It is one of the visible manifestations. A blind spot is a location on the optic nerve that is dim, hazy, and fuzzy. This symptom begins as a tiny blind spot that progressively expands over time. This blind spot is frequently flickering and crescent-shaped, which is excruciating for some individuals. The blind region varies from individual to individual. Some individuals experience colour spots with a zigzag pattern, others with a kaleidoscope pattern, etc. Approximately 7% of individuals experience reduction, and 13% of individuals suffer from scotoma.
Migraine sufferers are more susceptible to developing tinnitus. Tinnitus is an auditory condition characterised by ringing in the ears. The cochlea, an inner ear structure, is responsible for hearing. Due to the disruption and inflammation in the nerves, the bones produce tinnitus noises by oscillating.
The sensation of paresthesia
Individuals with ocular migraine also experience paresthesia or a prickly sensation. Due to the extreme pressure on the brain, the nervous system begins to send out unnecessary signals. This emotion is predominantly mobile and transfers from one area to another.
During ocular migraine, brain cells are hyperactive, resulting in excessive serotonin release. This increase in serotonin causes emotional instability and the onset of anxiety and tension in the patient.
migraine of the eyes during pregnancy
Migraine of the eye is more prevalent in women than in males. The incidence of ocular migraines increases during pregnancy. Approximately 15 to 20% of women experience ocular migraines during pregnancy. Migraine of the eye is common during pregnancy because a woman’s body undergoes not only physical but also emotional changes. However, as pregnancy progresses, the incidence of classic migraines decreases.
Ocular migraines during pregnancy can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
The continuous rise and decline in oestrogen levels is the cause of ocular migraine, whereas the high oestrogen levels in the third trimester of pregnancy reduce the frequency of classical migraine.
elevated blood pressure
During pregnancy, a woman’s blood volume increases by 45 percent. To accommodate this increased blood volume, the arteries and veins enlarge and exert pressure on nearby blood vessels, which can induce ocular migraine in pregnant women.
a dehydration deficit
During pregnancy, the body requires more water to function normally than usual. A expectant woman needs to consume 64 to 96 ounces of water daily.
Even though pregnancy brings joy and excitement, it is one of the most challenging aspects of a woman’s existence. The horrors of labour pain and infant health are the primary causes of stress in the majority of women, which can result in ocular migraines.
How to manage ocular migraine symptoms during pregnancy
Low-effort exercise is beneficial for both mother and child. Yoga, swimming, and jogging are beneficial for maintaining health, enhancing the metabolism, and controlling blood pressure. In addition, exercise enhances sleep quality, which can reduce the risk of ocular migraine.
In the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, insomnia is common among women. Try to obtain as much rest as possible, as sleep deprivation can easily induce ocular migraine. Try eating 4 hours prior to bedtime, and avoid adding too much heat to your dinner, as this can influence the quality of your sleep.
Reaching out Pregnancy-related concerns are readily resolved by reaching out to family and friends. Seeking assistance can help reduce stress and anxiety, thereby decreasing the risk of migraine.
Wet and dry compresses
Both cold and hot compresses can relax the muscles and arteries surrounding the neck and temples, thereby alleviating ocular migraine and ocular migraine associated with nervous depression.
Consulting a physician
Informing your doctor about your symptoms is the best method to rule out other potential dangers.
How dangerous are ocular migraines during pregnancy?
Women who are pregnant and suffering from ocular migraine should be extremely cautious. Despite the fact that complications from ocular migraine are extremely uncommon, the risk still exists. Migraine of the eyes can be a symptom of postpartum complications. Women who suffer from ocular migraines during pregnancy have a small chance of developing gestational diabetes.