Pathology and physiology
Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterium that causes one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the globe. Infected people transmit the disease to their sexual partners through unprotected vaginal, oral, or oral-vaginal contact. It is also possible to transmit the infection by sharing sex toys that have not been washed or condoms that have expired. (2)
It is not always necessary to penetrate a person’s body in order to contract the infection; sexual contact with an infected person’s bodily secretions is sufficient. The most prevalent cause of blindness in the world is trachoma, which is caused by exposure to infected secretions. The infection can also be transmitted vertically from mother to child when the infant travels through the infected mother’s vaginal canal.
By invading and infecting the host cells, Chlamydia bacteria are able to obtain the nutrients necessary for their survival. As a result of a lack of these nutrients, the infected microbes perish. In the absence of vitamins or iron, the Chlamydia bacteria cease to divide and grow to abnormally large proportions. These aberrant cells can revert to a normal state when the conditions of the host cell return to normal.
According to studies, approximately fifty percent of infections resolve within one year, eighty percent within two years, and ninety percent within three years of the initial infection. Certain infections, such as epididymitis in men and pelvic inflammatory disease in women, are however persistent and can result in severe complications. Both sexes are susceptible to infertility due to these infections.
The pathologic consequences of infection are well-established, but the mechanism by which chlamydia causes tissue damage is not yet completely understood. Women with PID caused by Chlamydia trachomatis have neutrophils in the endometrial surface epithelium and gland lumens, dense subepithelial lymphocytic infiltration, stromal plasma cells, and germinal centres containing transformed lymphocytes, according to histological analysis of their tissues. In bacterial-infected female genital tract tissues, neutrophils and chronic inflammatory cells predominate, but do not aid in identifying the specific responses responsible for the sequelae.